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could not employ a physician, he never refused to respond to their ealls for help, sometimes riding twenty miles, carrying his own food and staying over night in their miserable cabins. In several cases of chronic trouble in children, due to bad food, clothing and housing, he took them to his own home, kept them: for months, and sent them back cured. For all this he never thought of receiving any return." (Armes, pp. 14—15).

42) Gilmore, a), p. 176. Belangwekkend en waardevol is ook, wat Avirett, pp. 70—71, vertelt over het gebruik van poor white families op een groote terpentijnwinning, vóór den oorlog, in North Carolina.

43) Conway, pp. 120—121.

44) Olmsted, a), p. 674.

45) Olmsted, c), pp. 449, 450.

46) „These poor whites were always spoken of with anger by the overseers, and they each had a standing offer of much more than the intrinsic value of their land, from the manager, to induce them to move away." (Olmsted, c), p. 75).

47) Mackay, p. 203.

48) A. O. Craven, „Poor Whites and Negroes in the Ante-Bellum South", The Journal of Negro History, Vol. XV, No. L (Jan. 1930). p. 24.

49) Een reiziger, die met zijn negerbediende in de hut van een clay eater vrouw was afgestegen, noodigde hem uit aan tafel mee aan te zitten, „ . . . but the woman, observing my gesture, yelled out, her eyes flashing with anger: „No, sar! No darkies eats with us. Hope you don't reckon yerself no better than a good-for-nothin', no account nigger!" (Gilmore, a), p. 73).

60) Verschillende reizigers deelen hierover komische incidenten mee, zie b.v. Lyell, a), Vol. I, p. 145.

61) S. D. Smedes, A Southern Planter, New York: Pott, 1914. p. 163.

52) Bremer, Vol. I, p. 386.

53) Olmsted, a), pp. 129—130.

64) „The negroes, both free and slaves, have generally a great dislike to the Irish, whom they were the first to call „white niggers". A very ~ poor white man — such as an Irishman generally is when he arrivés in America, and struggles hard to compete with the negro for the lowest kinds of occupation — is looked upon with pity and hate by Sambo. „A white Buckra" is the most opprobrious epithet that a negro can make use off for, in his eyes, wealth, authority, power, and white blood should always be found together." (Mackay, pp. 243—244).

55) [J. H. Ingraham], The South-West, (by a Yankee). 2 vols. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1835. Vol. II, p. 248.

66) F. P. Gaines, The Southern Plantation. New York: Columbia University Press, 1924. pp. 189—190.

67) Solomon Northup, Twelve years a slave. Auburn: Derby and Miller, Buffalo: Derby, Orton and Mulligan, etc., 1853. p. 158.

58) Van de poor whites uit Noord Alabama, Noord Georgia en Oost Tennessee meende de Superintendent of the Home for the Refugees in Nashville zelfs: „These people have ohe peculiarity that is generally supposed to be characteristic of the negro. When they fall sick, they rarely recover. They seem to have no tenacityof life".(Redpath, p. 206).

59) Bremer, Vol. I, p. 365.

60) Phillips, i), p. 348.