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Act van 1894, 57 & 58 Vic. c. tiO. Sectie 458 luidt: „In every contract of service, express or implied, between the owner of a ship and the master or any scaman thereof, and in every instrument of apprenticeship whereby any person is bound to serve as an apprentice on board any ship, there shall be implied, notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary, an obligation on the owner of the ship, that the owner of the ship, and the master and every agent charged with the loading of the ship or the preparing thereof to sea, shall use all reasonable means to insure the seaworthiness of the ship for the voyage at the time when the voyage commences, and to keep her in a seaworthy condition for the voyage during the same. (2) Nothing in this section (a) shall subject the owner of a ship to any liability by reason of the ship being sent to sea in an unseaworthy state where, owing to special circumstances, the so sending thereof to sea is reasonable and justifiable; or (b) shall apply to any ship employed exclusively in trading or going from place to place in any river or inland water of which the whole or part is in any British posscssion".

laylor (II. blz. 779). ziet in dit artikel van de M. S. Act een onmiskenbare verschuiving van den bewijslast: de redelijkheid of verschoonbaarheid van den onzeewaardigen staat van het schip valt aan te toonen door den schipper. De billijkheid bracht een dergelijke prima facie gebondenheid van den schipper mee.

Van een wettelijke omkeering van den bewijslast is ook sprake in art. 1 der Spoorwegwet van 1875:

„Ondernemers eener spoorwegdienst zijn verant-