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this fact is afforded by the Icelandic sagas (Egils saga cap. 50 ff.; Gunlaugs saga cap. 5,6), The author (or scribe?) of the latter saga even goes the length of saying. 'Ein var tunga 1 Englandi ok noregi, aj»r Vilhjalmr bastarjtr vann England' (ed. Mogk, p. 11). No wonder that so many Old Norse words found their vvay into M. E. ')

Ihe folio wing type A verbs are first met w i t h in M. E.

20. dremen, 'dream'.

O. E. dreman means'tomake a joyful sound', the usual word for what is expressed by Mn. E. 'to dream' being mcctan (see above), while the corresponding noun was meeting; swefn, too, was used in this sense. In early M. E. dremen always lias the O. E. signification (e. g. in La-amon.)

The A construction of dremen = Mn. E 'dream' first makes its appearance in East Midland productions, so that we can safely assume that the construction me &c dremep is owing to Scandinavian influence (O. Icel. mik &c dreymr; inf. elreyma, always —'to dream'),and that M. E. dremen is to be looked upon as a loanword.2)

Ilere are some early instances:

Gen. & Exod. 1941, him drempte \or quiles he slep.

Ibid. 2049, Hem drempte dremes bo\en onight.

Ibid. 2059, Me drempte, ic stod at a win-tre. Mc drempte further occurs in 2066 and 2078, him drempte in 2095 and 2123.

Ilavelok 1284, A selkuth drem dremedc me nou.

Ibid. 1304, Anojier drem dremede mc yet.

Rob. of Brunne, Ilandlyng Synne 454 Jiat dremed pe ]>e lioujier ny,~t.

21. for{>ink(en) (forluinchcn &c) 'cause sorrow, repentance. 1 his is an interesting verb, and deserves a moment's special attention. It made its appearance in M.E. about the end of the twelfth century, and in little more than a hundred years entirely supplanted ofpink\en\ (of {lunchen &c), the

1) l5ue tlie interesting Introdnction to Iijiirkman, Scnmlinarian Ijtan Words in M/ddh' Enyhsh. a work wliicli did nut coine luider my notice nntil atter I liad eunipleted inv MS.

U) Cl', üjiirkman, p. 11.