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meaning. In M. E. there is a phrase myster habben, which is quite synonymous with nede habben and, in some texts at any rate, just as usual; side by side with it a type A phrase, myster ben + dative, is found. The former of these two expressions occurs, for instance, Cursor Mitndi 14035 (all texts), 19044 (all texts), 28275, 28717; Assumption of oure Lady 68, Ham po le Works I, pp. 46, 66, 226, 229, 234, 251; II, 118; Brnce III 357; XIX 616; Rel. Pieces Thornton MS. 59/13; Rom. Rose B 5614; C 6078, 6519; Lay Folks' Cal. Th. 360 &c. &c. The second phrase is met with: Cursor M. 15661 C, F & G; Hampole's Prose Treatises p. 12; Rom. Rose B 2787; rhaucer, Cant. T. C 6581 ; Alexius Vernon & Laud MS. 108, I. 300 (without dat.) &c. Now the fact that beside the parallel phrases nede habben and nede is + dative there was a verb neden no doubt led to the formation of the denominative myster, which, like neden, originally was a type A verb. It does not appear to have conie into use till about the end of the 141b century.

Wars of Alex. 4281 (Ashm.), I'.f mistris neuire na medcyne for malidy on erthe.

Vork Myst. Plays 57/54 What mystris /ie ?

Secreta Secretorum 2«<1 transl. 104/29, ]>e enchauntere rade on his mule, |iat bar him wlianne hym mystercd by |>e way.

Aymon 129/14, For it mystrelh me wel.

Eneydos 62/3, What mystreth him to edifie ('artage?

27. neden, 'be necessary'.

The O. E. verb neadian, niedan means 'compel', a signification which neden also often has in early M. E. (in Aneren Riwle exclusively!). In late O. E. the verb, also occurs in the sense of 'be necessary', which is not a further development of the original sense, but is only the consequence of the O. E. noun nied (nead, neod) having two meanings: 'compulsion' and 'necessity'. Two instances of this second sense are found in vol. II p. 89 of Grein-Wulker's. Bibl. d. Ags. Prosa (Rule of St. Benet, ed. Schrüer) 'on cealduni eardum neodait, l^t jiar-s reafes mare sy; on hleowfaestum la's. l);rs abbodes foresceawunge sceal beon be |iysum, hu \a?s neodige'. A constructions cannot be instanced froni O. E., and even in M. E. they

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