earlv as 1874, with the help of numerous measurements, that the apparent shortening of the second finger is mainly based on its wrong position with regard to the raetacarpal bones, and that, on an average, the second finger of 70 per cent of the persons measured by him was in fact the longer.
The Viennese woman of 20, represented in Fig. 93, to whom we shall have occasion to refer later on, displays a hand which combines in itself all the excellences mentioned. But anyhow, it remains true that tliis " sign of higher evolution " occurs oftener in woman than in man.
D. Lower Limbs.
A mistake is frequently made in judging the length of the legs in relation to the trunk; namely, the entire length of the legs is not taken into consideration.
As I have already said, the trunk descends lower in the middle, whilst the legs terminate obliquely on the outside towards the hips.
If Richer be followed and the length of the body be reckoned as equivalent to 71/* heads, the length of the trunk together with the head, wlien measured in the centre down to the rima vulvae, is equivalent to 4 heads, and the length of the leg, measured to the hip-joint, is also equal to 4 heads. The legs, therefore, exceed half the length of the body by a quarter of a head, and stand by so inuch higher than the centre of the body.
It is exactly the same in a man as in a woman. I he difference between them consists in proportions which are the outcome of the form of the pelvis. In a man it is narrow and high, so that the middle part of the trunk, which is thrust between the legs, runs lower down in a more acute angle, in consequence of which the middle of the body apparently also descends lower in the trunk. In a woman, on the other hand, the pelvis is broad and flat, the central part of the trunk, which is thrust between the legs, descends less far. in an obtuse angle, and so the middle of the body aparently stands higher than in a man.
Owing to the fact that the outline of the leg continues into that