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Applying this principle to Acheh, we arrivé at the conclusion — a Authoritative conclusion fully justified by the facts — that the chief objects of study in that country are the authoritative Shafi'ite works on the learning of the law (Arab. ft/h, Ach. pikah). As these books are the same in all Shafi'ite countries, and the choice of any particular 011e of them does not affect the subject-matter of study, I consider it superfluous to give a list of this pi ka Z; -1 i t e ra t u re. 1 confine myself to observing that Nawawi's Minhaj attalibïn (Ach. Mcnlibt) and various commentaries thereon such as the Fath al-Wahhab (Ach. Peuthöioahab), the Tuhfah') (Ach. Tiipah) and Mahalli (Mahali) enjoy great popularity.

The Usuy (Ufiil or Tawhid), i. e. "doctrine", is next in importance Study of to the Pikali. Both branches of learning are studied simultaneously;

the former may even precede the latter if circumstances so require. The difTerences of the four schools or madhabs exercise no influence on this score, as they do in regard to the interpretation of the law.

Thus even in a Shafi'ite country preference is by no means always given to such Usul-works as have Shafi ites for their authors.

In Acheh the same works are employed for this branch of study as in other parts of the Archipelago, and especially those of Sanusi with their accompanying commentaries.

The great Moslim father al-Ghazali (ob. iiii A. I).) describes the study Mysticism. of the law (Ach. Pikah) as the indispensable bread of life of the believers, the dogmatic teaching {Usuy) being the medicine which mankind, threatened with all manner of heresy and unbelief, is constrained to use as preventive and as cure. Lastly he considers mysticism (Arab.

tacazuzviif, Ach. teusawdh) the highest and most important element in man's spiritual education, since it serves so to digest the bread of life and the medicine, that a true knowledge of God and of the community of mankind with the Creator may spring therefrom.

Many works on the law and on dogma contain here and thcre mystic points of view, but expressly mystic orthodox works are also studied in Acheh.

Yet these works on mysticism cannot be said to be popular in The more Acheh. As we know, a sort of heretical mysticism found its way into ^'mysticism! the E. Indian Archipelago simultaneously with the introduction of

i) The Tuhfah and the Nihayah are the authoritative works par exctllencc for the Shafi'ites. Where the two agree, departure from their common tencts is prohibited, where they differ, the 'ater commentators decide the question.

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