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mentions 110 less than 15 masters at whose feet he sat, 27 distinguished pandits whom he knew, and 15 celcbrated mystics with vvhom he camc in contact.

Ahmail Above all others he esteems and praises the mystic teacher Shaikh ush.uin. Ahmad Qushashï at Medina. He calls him his spiritual guide and teacher in the way of God, and tells hovv after his death he (Abdurra'uf) obtained from his successor Molla Ibrahim permission to found a school himself. Thus after 1661 Abdurra'uf taught in Acheh, and won so many adherents that after he died his tomb was regarded as the holiest place in all the land, till that of the sayyid called Teungku Anjöng somewhat eclipsed it after 1782.

We noticed above (footnote to p. 10) that the mysticism of Ahmad Qushashï was disseminated in the K. Indian Archipelago by a great number of khalifahs (substitutes), who generally obtained the necessary permission on the occasion of their pilgrimage to Mekka. I11 Java we find innumerable salasilahs or spiritual genealogical trees of thi.s tariqah or school of mystics. I11 Sumatra some even give their tariqah the special name of Qushashite'); and it is only of late years that this Satariah, as it is usually called, lias begun to be regarded as an oldfashioned and much-corrupted form of mysticism and to make place for the tarlqahs now most popular in Mekka, sucli as the Naqshibendite and Qadirite.

Satariah. ' have called this school of Qushashï corrupt for two reasons. In the first place its Indonesian adherents have been so long left to themselves, -) that this alone is enough to account for the creeping in of all manner of impurities in the tradition. Hut besides this, both Javanese and Malays have made use of the universal popularity enjoycd by the name Satariah as a hall-mark with which to authenticate various kinds of village philosophy to a large extent of pagan origin. We find for instance certain formulas and tapa-rules which in spite of unmistakeable indications of llindu influence may be called peculiarly Indonesian,

1) Ahmad Qushashï himself calls his tariqah the Shattarite (after the well-known mystic school founded by as-Shattarl) and points out that some of his spiritual ancestors also represent the Qadirite tariqah. In the E. Indian Archipelago also, Satariah is the name most in use to designate this old-fashioncd mysticism.

2) In Arabia the Shattarite mysticism secms long to have fallen out of fashion; in Mekka and Medina the very name is forgottcn. In British India it still prevails herc and therc, but as far as I am aware it does not enjoy anywhere a popularity which even approaches that which it lias attaincd in Indoncsia.