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though not actually at variancc with the Mohammcdan teaching, are yet of a sccular rather than a religious nature, e. g.:

"May the tiger catch me",

uMay the thunder smite me",

"May I become a leper",

"May the whirlwind overtake me",

"May the 4 yards of earth (i. e. the grave) never cover me (my b(nly) ' '), if so and so shall happen. Sucli are tlie forms of oath familiar to all, and more often used than the invocation of Allah by his various titles, which the Moslim law prescribes for the purpose of an oath.

Similar oaths (we need only instance the Javanesc samber glap) are in cominon use among other neighbouring peoples. The genuinely Mohammedan oath "May the Ouran with its thirty divisions consume me", is however also very frequently heard.

1 he oath of mutual fidelity, especially in war, taken 011 a weapon or a hullet, lias been alreatly described (see footnote to p. 94 95 above).

The discussion of the religious teaching of Islam lias led us in our own despite somewhat far aficld, for the doniain of popular belief is practically boundless. 1 he other four "pillars" of the Mohammedan faith may he more briefly dealt with, since tliey are concerned with the practice of the law itself and have been more or less fully discussed in the earlier portion of this work.

§ 3. The remaining four "Pillars of Islam".

The secoiul "pillar" is the ritual prayers (calat, Ach. salat or seumayaug). Ritual The law imperatively ordains their celebration five times eacli day, once lirayersa week (on Friday at 110011) with certain special additions, and also on the occurrence of certain events sucli as a death; hut merely recommends their use on other occasions. Closely connected with these prayers is the ritual purilïcation, which is necessary in certain cases to prepare the believer for the performance of a sembahyang, since ritual

1) In the Achehncse eolloquial these forms of oath are expressed as follows: Ba^rimiicng kab^ ba glantcuè /<*' or chang, ba' budo' lön^ ba' anghi put eng blidng ba /J//, ba? bc1 jitrivibng Ié bumoe pciict ha'ih.