degeneration in the offspring of the animals upon which he had operated, and at the twelfth International Anti-alcoholic Congress he laid before the meeting the results of his investigations on the same subject with regard to human beings, his conclusions being, that the offspring of alcohol-drinking parents are weaker, or more degenerate, than the offspring of non-alcohol drinking parents.
The question as to the amount consumed by what he termed the alcohol drinking person is of course open to comment, and doubtless there may be some who will receive with reserve the statement that the drinking of even one glass of beer a day exercises a degenerate influence on the offspring.
In dealing with this matter it is relevant to refer the researches of Dr. W. H. R. Rivers F. R. S. and Mr. H. N. Webber particulars of which are contained in the special Report prepared by the Chairman of the Science and Education Sub-Committee of the National Temperance League of Great Britain.
The chief results of the work of Rivers and Webber were as follows:
1. To confirm their previous work in showing that doses of ten and twenty cc. of ethylic alcohol have no effect on muscular and mental efficiency as tested by the ergograph and by Kraepelin's arithmetical methods;
2. To show, that with these methods, doses ofthirtyand f o r t y cc. of alcohol have no constant action, but produce, sometimes an increase, sometimes a decrease, of efficiency.
3. To show, that with the same methods, doses of whisky, containing twenty cc. of alcohol, are without appreciable effects,
4. That twenty cc. of alcohol, had, in one subject, a slightly injurious action.
Kraepelin, relying on long and carefully trained subjects, found that, under the moderate dose, there was a brief quickening of more or less automatic processes.... the quickening decreasing to zero as the complexity increased; and that with all processes, there was an early and material subsequent slowing. Rivers, relying on a disguise which should prevent the (untrained) „subject" from knowing whether he had taken alcohol or not, found no such quickening for simple arithmetical processes under „moderate doses" of alcohol; he found impairment in accuracy, however, when employing Mc. Dougall's drum.