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further, what has already been done in this matter and what course must now be followed.

Moral education is supposed to include the protection of the native population from dangers, which threaten them. Among those dangers the liquor-traffic is one of the greatest. It is difficult to mention any part of the non-christian world, where the trade in alcohol is not increasing. It is not to be wondered at. John R. Mott in his1) „The Decisive hour of Christian Missions" says: „The multiplying of points of contact with the West, through the expansion of its commercial enterprise, without pure Christianity, communicates to the people an added hardening of heart, a materializing of life and a new immorality. With the influx of European civilisation into Africa, for example, there seems to have come a flood of pernicious influences, of vice and of disease. It is commented upon by many observers, that whenever an Eastern and a Western nation impinge upon each other, the contact in some mysterious way tends to bring out the worst there is in each. The vices of Western life seem to work with added deadliness among men of the more simple civilisation, such as those found in Africa, in Oceania and in parts of Asia. This can be observed in the debasing influence on native character and life of the mining centres, to which many thousands of African, Chinese and Indian labourers have been taken; but the great instance is the increase in the liquor traffic, which is traceable directly to the West."

Alcoholic drinks find a ready market and many merchants make good use of that in doing business. Little do they reek the consequences, they have not the interests of the native at heart; their sole object ist to make as much money as possible. For this purpose they find excellent allies in the retailers, who after subjecting their wares to various operations in order to increase the quantity, retail them at enormous profits. There are also development companies that open shops for their contract-labourers, where in addition to some necessaries of life, gin is specially to be got. Other companies supply advances in money or liquor on security, for which the natives have to deliver all sorts of products in exchange. Examples of such inscrupulous practices are many.

!) „The Decisive Hour of Christian Missions" by John R. Mott LLD. chapter II, pp. 40, 41.