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islands, is entirely prohibited. Europeans may stock small quantities of spirits for their own use, but selling to the natives is forbidden. The intention is to extend the prohibitive laws to other spheres.

Increase in import duties is necessarily accompanied by increase in excise; otherwise the industry of the mother-country would be transferred to the colonies and entail more misery. In the districts where distilleries were established, there would be a greater sale and the neighbouring countries would suffer through thes mugglingtrade. It is the question, whether it is not necessary to make the excise-duty higher than the import-duty. The importers have already so many expenses; wages in Europa are higher, so that the industry in the place itself has many advantages and can produce cheaper. This problem is, however, not the order of the day at present, as only Portugal possesses such an industry in its colonies and will turn its liquor-manufactories into sugarfactories. It may, however, become the order of the day, if the import duties are continually increased; even though the excise duty is raised at the same rate, the possibility exists that the manufacture may become much cheaper than in the mother-country.

The problem of the native fermented (not distilled) drinks is more difficult; although these are not nearly so dangerous as our spirits, still they are not quite without danger, because they prepare a receptive soil for alcoholism. As long as the native takes his palmwine for personal and private use, little can be done against it, especially in those districts, where palmwine has become a necessity of life through lack of good drinking-water. It would be impossible to improve duties on the trees used for this puropse. And moreover it is an encroachment on the national life, which is not the case in the use of our spirits; therefore prudence is necessary.

The case is different, when the native sells his native drinks in pursuit of profit. In South-Africa there are severe measures against the sale of kaffer-beer. In Mozambique it is entirely prohibited. It is difficult to imagine that these fermented drinks will ever compete with our spirits. It appears to me that these two must remain separate in legislation.

Besides making regulations for import and production, the Colonial Powers can also enact laws for the sale. We have already