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complete displacement of crowded, dark, and dirty slums and tall gloomy tenement dwellings, by bright healthy homes, and the practical realisation of the simple truth, hitherto so much overlooked, that no home is complete without its own well-kept garden.

The intimate relationship between housing reform and temperance reform may be seen from a consideration of two facts. The first of these is that housing reformers have usually associated the work of home building —• (which itself constitutes a powerful indirect attack upon intemperance) —with efforts atwhatmaybe called domestic control of the drink traffic itself. Thus, at Bournville, under its trust deed, no public house can be established without the unanimous consent of all the Trustees: at Port Sunlight, the principle of local option has been set up: while in the central or town area of Letchworth, itself covering 1,200 acres, and now embracing a population of over 5C00 persons, there are at present no licensed premises at all; though there are two public houses in the agricultural belt. Further the question of whether there are to be any is to be left shortly to the popular vote; while it is quite understood that if licensed premises are opened these will be placed under Disinterested management1).

This, then, is the first fact I wish to emphasise — that those who are especially interested in Housing Reform, usually associate with such efforts some measure of direct control over the liquor traffic itself.

The second fact I wish to draw attention to is that good housing, which necessarily means also the provision of gardens, does have a most markedly beneficial effect upon the drinking habits of the people.

A dark, gloomy room or group of rooms in a crowded quarter is obviously no place for the quiet rest or recreation of the tired man returning from his long and hard day's work. And with such dweiling places — they cannot be called homes —- is it any wonder that the man or even the woman takes refuge in the bright, warm, near-at-hand shelter of the public-house?

But, displace a grasping, greedy landlord, who exacts the largest possible rent for the smallest possible accommodation by a public-spirited individual, or society, whose one aim is to offer a really good home at the most moderate rent which is consistent

') Gotenburg System (Gasthaus-Reform).

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