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miniatures in the manuscripts, of which the new edition of the Grimani-Breviarium affords a brilliant example. x)

Soon after the invention of photography the total number of reproduced manuscripts grew very considerable. In different countries, principally in England and France, reproductions of manuscripts of very different value appeared, more or less beautifully executed. In these, however, nothing like a general plan was to be perceived. Often chance decreed what the production should be.

But the right way had long been indicated by no less a person than Friedrich Ritschl. This genial scholar, in many ways in advance of his time, had already shown at great length in 1840 what great use true reproductions can have and what manuscripts should thus be reproduced in the first place. In that year he discovered a superior — as he believed — and cheap manner of reproduction (,,Uckermann's Lithography ) and immediately saw what great service could be rendered by it to philological science. The 30th. of September 1840 he communicated to ths „Philologenversammlung" in Gotha his plans for a „codex palaeographicus" and for „vollstandige Facsimilirung ganzer Codices" for which he specially assigned four species. 2)

„1) solche, deren Inhalt zum ersten Male bekannt gemacht wird;

2) Handschriften von sehr schwieriger oder verderbter Schrift (z. B. die Lexica Sangerman., Schol. Vat. Eurip. u. a.);

3) alle Codices unici, denen allein wir die Erhaltung gewisser Schriftsteller verdanken (wie etwa Hesych., Phot. Lex., Tacit. Annal. I—VI, Fest., in mehr als einer Be-

- ziehung Anthol. Palat.);

4) Handschriften, welche immer die Hauptgrundlage für

i, Bréviaire Grimani de la Bibliothèque de S. Marco a Venise. Reproduction photographique compléte éditée par Scato de Vries, Directeur de la Bibliothèque de 1'Université de Leyde, et S. Morpurgo, Directeur de la Bibliothèque de S. Marco. Leyde, A. W. Sijthoff. Livraisons I-X, 1904 svv.

s) Fr. Ritschelii Opuscula philol., vol V p. 579-