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direct or indirect assistance from Governments, scholars' societies, or other sources. The endeavour of the publisher of the Codices will always be to produce as much as possible at the lowest price, without subsidy, and he believes that his chances of success will be ever impro.ving according as he can show, by the work that has already appeared, what he wishes to do, and also what he is able to produce, and according as his relations with the different libraries and the excellent artstudios are getting more extensive.

Whether it may yet become possible, according to the original plans ot Messrs. Hartwig and du Rieu, to sell such reproductions for a much lower price to libraries, as paying members of a Society, is to be doubted. Only a short time ago this matter was thoroughly discussed at a „Congrès international pour la reproduction des manuscrits, des monnaies et des sceaux," held at Liège in August 1905. The plan of forming such a Society was discussed there, and this was owing to the observations, published before, of an American scholar, Mr. Ch. Mills Gayley, who wrote among other things: x)

„One of the most important drawbacks to scholarship in America is a lack of the original manuscripts and the unique folios and quartos necessary to historical, literary, and scientific research. These are jealously guarded in the libraries of the Old World, and cannot be removed from them for love or money; consequently our professors, students, and scholars of all kinds find it necessary to travel thousands of miles, and to spend thousands of dollars, for the purpose of consulting priceless manuscripts or early printed books.

The consideration of this fact led me some eight years ago to inquire at the British Museum, and the Bodleian Library, Oxford, whether permission might be granted to an American institution to reproduce by photography facsimiles of their unique literary materials"

l) See Actes of the Congrès, Bruxelles, Misch & Thron, 1905, p. 206

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