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38. Obs. 1. a) In the higher literary style periphrasis with shall sometimes takes the place of the inflectional subjunctive in conditional clauses, naturally only when the reference is to a future action or state. Compare Murray, s. v. shall, 10, a.

i. If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it orseliit; heshall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. B i b 1 e. Exodus, XXII, 1.

If you shall hereafter • have the goodness to forgive me, I hope I

shall deserve it. Fieldino, T o m J o n e s, IV, Ch. XI, 576.

He may claim the right of refusing duel to any man, /ƒ he shall so

think fit Kinosley, Westw. Hol Ch. XII, 1086.

The author will indeed be glad if the book shall contribute in any

degree to the solution of the many problems of statecraft that must

be settled satisfactorily before there can be assurance that never

again shall humanity be subjected to such an ordeal as it will have

passed through during the terrible years of this war. Raleioh C.

Minor, A Republic of Nations, Pref.

ii. For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of Heaven. B i b 1 e, M a 11 h, V, 20.

iii. Therefore. mind you, Sir Schoolmaster, unless you shall promlseme never to hint word of what passed between us two, and that neither you nor yours shall carry tales of my godson,... look to it, if I do not — Kinosley, Westw. Hol. Ch. II, 136.

iv. The same lady pays for ihe education and clothing of an orphan from the workhouse on condition she shall aid her mistress [etc ]. Ch. BrontE, J a n e E y r e, Ch. XXX, 436

b) Should, of course, takes the place of shall, when the timesphere is the past. It is not confined to the higher literary style, but is not clearly distinguished from the conditional should in hypothetical clauses of rejected condition. They plighted their faith, and they vow'd to wed, | If Qilbert should e'er be free. The En'g. Merch. and the Saracen Lady, V.

II. a) The indicative present or perfect is, however, used practically without any exception in ordinary Spoken English, also when the reference is to a future action or state. See especially Bradley (The Making of English Ch. 11,53) and H. W. and F. G. Fowler (The King's English, 155), who are practically in accord in predicting the extinction of the subjunctive in conditional clauses in another generation.

i. If he does it, he will be punished. Murray, s.v. if I, a, §.

ii. Provided that all Is safe, you may depart. Bain, H. E. Gr., 113.

iii. Something must be fixed on. No matter what, so that something is chosen. Jane Austen, Mansf. Park, Ch. XIV, 137.