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In those days the people at large abhorred war and figthing much more than they do now in Germany. They would never have thought of ascribing to war any noble or inspiring qualities, as has been done by many authors of our day, especially of course in Germany. They got a separate class of men to do the beastly and disgraceful work for them. They paid them well, but they feit nothingbut contempt for them. Soldiers, in those days, were men who possessed no religious or humane feelings whatever, who robbed and murdered whenever they got the chance, and were believed by all honest people to be destined for the most thorough eternal perdition. Good women, when they passed, would make the sign of the cross.

But from the time of Napoleon onwards all this has changed. France has been the first country to make patriotism a religion, and Napoleon's immeasurable ambition could wish for no better companion than French patriotism. Conscription and standing armies alone could furnish him the power he was yearning for. Patriotic megalomania which has in our time manifested itself in German ultra-militarism, was first shown by France, la grande nation as she called herself. France held Europe under her iron heel, she used her mailed fist, a great deal more than Germany is ever likely to do!

If we find it difficult to give a definition of what a State is, the State has no hesitation whatever in asserting itself and letting us know, especially since con-