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that aggressive imperialism was caused by a highly composite state of mind, of which the chief component parts were Byzantinism, with its syllogistic resultants: ultra-militarism and megalomania, and that this state of mind was systematically nursed, at first by dynasties, and later on by entire schools of thought or philosophy, and that the inhabitants of the States in question ultimately looked upon themselves as possessed of the noblest virtues which patriotism could possibly engender.

In the case of other large states aggressive imperialism may not be caused, and has in most cases not been caused by the same fatal string of faults in the national disposition. But it has certainly been, and will be again and again, caused by those other monarchs, whom we often hear called the Kings of Trade and Industry. A combination of men of peculiar genius under favorable circumstances may, even in large and modern democracies such as the United States of North America of today and in the democratised Germany and Austria and Russia of tomorrow, bring about precisely the same state of mind as was inflicted upon the unlucky French people of Napoleon's glorious days, or upon the wretched millions of blind and misled Germania. In obtaining more territory and an increased population for their country the Kings of Industry will see fresh means of increasing their wealth and their power. By their newspapers andbooks and speeches they will incite their mobs as much

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