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I merely mention historie facts; I draw no conclusions. The reader may draw his own.

It would, of course, be absurd to say that the expression „travailler pour le roi de Prusse" dates from that time. William V was incapable and the Dutch democrats wanted to get rid of him. But here the King of Prussia, like a true Prussian, stepped in on the side of absolutism. He sent an army into Holland, and the Stadholder was re-instated. Then came a long string of disasters. That was certainly not the fault of the King of Prussia. He had been supported by England in his intervention in the Stadholder's favour. The fact is that Holland was absolutely at the mercy of the Great Powers.

In 1795, the third of the three important dates, Holland threw in her lot with France, the country against which the European coalition, headed by England, was directed. For France aspired at military preponderance in Europe. Holland, when it was too late, saw that she had „put her money on the wrong horse." But the end was that Holland was made to fight the coalition and was ruined.

The centenary of independance, celebrated in 1913, served as a timely reminder of the misery of those disastrous years, which was not lost on Holland.

By her geographical situation Holland has, for ages, been influenced by the three large neighbouring nations: England, France and Germany. It is difficult to say whose influence she has undergone most. But