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perhaps, with a few more traces of Greek influence, if we had the whole work before us, but nobody who is acquainted with the Hindu mindwould ever expect a translation. The history of the Sürya-Siddhanta is only one of the examples, how works, more or less held to be inspired, were remodelled and altered to sucli an extent that the original well-nigh vanished; and why should foreign works be treated otherwise? And in no branch of Sanskrit literature have changes been made so freely as in astronomical works. Not from unworthy motives; on the contrary, the Hindu astronomers were the only class of learned men in their country who had an idea of science being progressive, not stationary or retrogressive. Therefore they thought themselves not only allowed, but called upon, to modify what by observation or otherwise could be proved to be erroneous.

To return to the Pauliga-Siddhanta, it must have existed, like some of the other Siddhantas, in two editions. All the quotations from it are again in Arya, which to my mind renders it probable that it was not long, sa)" at the utmost 100 years, prior to Aryabhata and Varaha-mihira. Now it is interesting that Utpala quotes a Müla-Puliga-Siddhanta, an «original Puliga-Siddhanta», and that this time the verse is in Anustubh. It is only one verse 1, but quite enough to prove that even this «original» work had been adapted to the exigencies of Hindu science, for it gives the number of revolutions of the fixed stars during the Four Ages. Here too we must leave it undecided whether Albïrünï had the Müla-Puli$a-Siddhanta in view, or the recast.

It would be extremely rash to deduce from these scanty details concerning the five first Standard works of Hindu astronomical science any inference as to the probable period of their first composition. As an hypothesis, however, serves to direct the attention to a more definite sphere of investigation, we ma)' roughly date the beginning of the Siddhanta-period at 250 A. D., about half-way between Garga and Varaha-mihira.

Among the remaining authorities mentioned in the Brhat-Samhita tnere are no more astronomers. Arya-Visnugupta is considered to be the author or publisher of a book on Nativity. He is also called Canakya, so that the fiery minister of Candragupta is meant. That Visnugupta cannot in reality have been the author is sufficiently evident, because the method of horos-

1 It is as folio ws:

Khakhastamuni ramaf vinetrasta9araratray ah |

bhanïlm caturyugenaite parivartah prakïrtitah ||

The number is 1582237800, which diminished by the number of the revolutions of the sun during the same period (4320000) gives 1577917800, being the number of the civil days.

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