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that in one of his opinions he agrees with the «ancient Greeks», and disagrees with Satya and Varaha-mihira. If I had been able to get the Apotelesmata, I should have compared the quotations from Manittha. It will be always worth while doing so, although it is not to be expected that the marked and special coincidences will be numerous or conclusive. In the same manner as a few traditions sufficed to enable Hindu astrologers to father the children of their own brains on their holy sages, so, I strongly suspect, they also did with the more renowned of the Greek astrologers. The notion of the productions of a man's mind being his property, a notion carried to such a ridiculous extent in Europe, was unknown to them. Unhappily, the opposite extreme they feil into, is much more pernicious. In Manittha, as quoted by Utpala, there is an extremely absurd passage, where the author ascribes antiquity to himself! «iti bril mag cirantanah»; that shows the spirit. 1

The three astronomers Lata-acarya, Simha-acarya and Aryabhata are mentioned by Varaha-mihira in a passage for the preservation of which we are indebted to Utpala. Although the work from which it is taken is not specified, there can be no doubt, that it is from the treatise Pancasiddhantika, and for an obvious reason. The passage speaks for itself in so far as it shows that it is taken from a ganita or astronomical work, and whatever works our author may have written which nobody ever heard of, this much is certain that Utpala knows only one astronomical work, and that the Pancasiddhantika. A part of the passage, published by me tn extenso at another place 2, may stand here:

dyuganad dinavaraptir dyugano 'pi hi degakalasambaddhah | Latacaryenoktam Yavanapure 'rdhastage sürye ||

ravyudaye Laiikayam Simhacaryena dinagano 'bhihitah | Yavananam nigi dagabhir gatair muhürtaigca tadgrahanat || Lankardharatrasamaye dinapravrttim jagadacaryabhatah |

bhüyah sa eva carkodayat pravrtyaha Laiikayam ||

«The day of the week is to be determined from the sum of days; riow the sum of days stands in connexion with situation and daytime. Lataacarya says that the days are to be reckoned from sunset in the city of the Yavanas. Simha-acarya states the sum of days (to begin) from sunrise at Lanka, and, if we adopt this, they must begin, in the country of the Yavanas, at the time that ten muhürtas of the night are past. Aryabhata

1 Balabhadra, the younger, in the Hayana-ratna, yuotes a Manittha who uses Arabic words (see Ind. Stud. II. 251 and 275.) Weber was too cautious, when he only hesitatingly pronounced such a book to be a fabrication.

! Journal K. A. Soc. of Great Britain and Ireland, XX, p. 383. [See this Series, I, 1913, p. 43.]

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