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the pure symbohc aroma was needed to ilavour the coarser worldly taste. Even if we hesitate to accept the morality as primary and the tale as secondary, it remains that there is a strong mutuality and interaction between the outer shell of story and the inner sense. Yet the sparing references to the Gesta in criticism of the Merchant of Venice persistently neglect the Moralities. Even in critical editions of the Gesta the moralities are frequently omitted. "weil denselben ein litterarhistorischer Wert nicht innewohnt" (Dick.) Grasze feels justified, in view of the "pure morals displayed in all these stories" in leaving out the moralisations. In the present instance the pure morals of the leading characters would shine none the less brightly for a few words of elucidation, and as such nothing will serve so well as the Reduccio belonging to the tale1.

Kabissemi, iste imperator est dominus noster Iheaus Cristus (Xpe) *, et filia tam pulehra est anima ad dei similitudinem creata. Miles est earo anime convincta, que die ac nocte quantum potest ad peccatum incitat, apostolus: Caro concupiscet adversus spiritum etc. Quid est ergo faciendum? Anima debet reeipere dona, h. e. bonas virtutes et secum custodire, et sio caro non vigilabit, i. e. non excitabitur ad peccatum faciendum donec anima eam excitaverit ut in bonis operibus vigilet, juxta illud: Vigilate et oraie ne in etc. Post hoe miles exposuit que Bua erant, ut pecuniam mutuaret ut puelle solveret etc. Sic homo omnia que habet vendat, ut sequatur Cristum, et hoe est, puelle i.e. anime placere. Sed sepe misera caro quando voluntatem suam non potest obtinere ut anima ei in peccato consenciat; pergit ad civitatem, i. e. ad mundum illum in quo invenit mercatorem, sc. dyabolum paratum ei satisfacere. Solvit ei quid petit sc. cordis delectacionem tali condicione: primo ut f acias ei cartam

1 I quote it from Oesterley, several attempts to obtain a fac-simile from Innsbrück having failed. The story itself is almost literally the same in Oesterley and in Dick, so that there is a probability that the Reducciones would not differ much. Oesterley's Reduccio certainly fits Dicks' story accurately. • The English Moralitee has pe Fadir of hevin, our lord Ihesu Griste. Was X p c (= Xqs) mistaken for Chr. pater cdestisl

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