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§ 331.

C. Particularités de t'application des représailles. Si 1'on rassemble les régies que les cours anglaises ont formulée* en faisant application des „Orders" consécutifs, on obtient 1'apercu contenu aux paragraphes suivants. § 331. (i) L'„Order in Councü" du n mars 1915 ne s'appbque pas a la Turquie (pas plus qu'a 1'Autriche-Hongrie et a la Bulgarie la dernière n'étant d'aiUeurs entrée dans la guerre qu'au mois d'octobre 1915) De pareils „Orders" sont strictae interpretatioms. Quaeritur, si un Etat belügérant qu'on ne saurait inculper de violations du droit des gens, peut légitimement être exposé aux consequences des représaüles édictées contre un Etat alüé qui a violé ce droit ?

Constantinos (302), batiment neutre (grec), parti du Piree le 30 avrü 1915, a destination de Vourla, du cóté sud de la baie de Smyrne, oü ü devait transporter une cargaison de vivres consignés a divers détaülants. Abstraction faite de 1'inculpation de transport de contrebande [voir a ce sujet §§ 461 et 476], & Couronne anglaise faisait valoir devant la Cour des prises pour 1'Egypte qu'en tout cas les marchandises rentraient dans la catégorie visée a 1'article 3 de 1' .Order in CouncU" du n mars 1915-

I wül fbst deal with the Order in Councü. The preamble recites that the German Government has been guüty of violati« <* ^ ««g^ war, that such conduct has given the Crown a right toretahate, and there f ore that His Majesty has determined to prevent commodities of any land ïromTeaching or leaving Germany. With this object the fust two arüdes of the Order declare that no merchant vessel wül be P^"^ goods to or from any German port. Then come two articles relating respect ively to ships saüing toor from a port otherthan a Germ^f T^Sf goods with an enemy destination, or belonging to the enemy The article which the Procurator asks me to apply in this case is axticle 3 . No doubt this article, if torn from its context, might be held to apply to a sWp going to Turkey, but reading it with its context and with the preamlleM fKde^I think the proposition is scarcely arguable. By international agreement enemy goods carried on neutral ^^contraband are immune from capture. Germany having been^tyd^ violation of the law of nations has subjected herself to habilrcyior TepÏÏ Xa^d tl Crown has decided that by way of retahatio^he United Kingdom will do aü in its power to prevent goods of any kind trom reacScrmany. There is not a word in the preamble or in the Order itséUE t?suggestïhat these reprisals are to effect any country except Germanv Moreover, reprisals, although perfectly legitimate as a Sm ofpunishment for breaches of i»?"^^'^^^ treated as exceptional methods of warfare, and Orders for their enfor

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