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641

§ 351.

in the Russo-Turkish war of 1853, Austro-Prassian war of 1866, FrancoGerman war of 1870, Spanish-American war of 1898, and the RussoJapanese war of 1904. According to international usage ships found in enemy harbours at the outbreak of war are either allowed to depart or detained or requisitioned on an undertaking to pay indemnity after the war, and as this principle has hitherto been observed by all civilized nations, the point whether the Hague Convention of 1907 was signed or not is immaterial...."

La cour suprème rejeta l'appel interjeté, pour le motif que la Convention de 1907 vise exclusivement la protection du commerce de bonne foi, mais n'a nullement en vue de protéger aussi les navbes marchands qui se sont réfugiés dans un port et qui ont cessé d'être engagés dans un commerce quelconque [voir sur ce sujet § 361].

Par ses décisions antérieures la cour avait déja écarté un appel analogue a un droit coutumier préexistant, en observant que:

„In international affairs there is no need to refer to usage wherever there are express conventions covering the matter."

Voir, e. a., le jugement concernant 1'Albenga, n°. 4 (1023).

France.

Ariadne (848); Lloyd (884) ; Willkommen (885) : „Considérant que l'article 2 de la Vle Convention de La Haye, dont le requérant invoque le bénéf ice, s'applique aux navires de commerce qui.... etc. ; — Qu'il résulte, d'autre part, des procès-verbaux de la Conférence de La Haye que ces dispositions, apportant dérogation au droit commun, n'ont été prises.... etc."

Grande-Bretagne.

Vob p.ex. les observations de la Cour des prises pour 1'Egypte dans 1'affaire du Gutenfels, n°. 1 (40) :

„In former days an enemy ship, found in harbour at the outbreak of hostihties, would have been confiscated almost as a matter of course, but in more recent times it has become customary for belhgerents on the outbreak of war to accord enemy ships a certain period, usually called days t>f grace, in which to clear from harbour and to reach a neutral port without fear of capture. The practice has not been uniform, but a longer 01 shorter period has been granted by most of the belhgerents in the wars that have occurred during the last seventy years. The question of according days of grace was considered at the Hague Conference of 1907 and evoked much diversity of opinion.

It was found impossible to agree upon any obligatory rule, and the Conference ultimately adopted a formula which amounts to no more than a recornmendation that belhgerents should allow enemy ships to clear and reach a neutral port in safety."

Verzfll, Droit des prises. 41

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