right to ship or buy contraband at his peril. Neither belhgerents nor Courts of Prize exercise a general correctional jurisdiction over the high seas. The ownership of contraband goods, although often spoken of as if it were a guilty departure from the neutral duty of impartiality, is now well recognised as being in itself no transgression of the limits of a neutrai's duty, but merely the exercise of a hazardous right, in the course of which he may come into conflict with the rights of the belligerent and
be worsted The décisions do not preclude their Lordships from recog-
nising that it is not the function of Courts of Prize to be censors of trade generaUy during war ; that if neutrals have a right to carry contraband, belhgerents have a correlative and predominant right to prevent it." Prins der Nederlanden, n°. 2 (1378):
„The term penalty, however, although often mentioned — for example, in The Commercen (i Wheaton, at p. 394) — is not in this connection really one which implies that the carriage of contraband is attended with the usual incidents of the commission of an offence. Neutrals who carry contraband do not break the law of nations ; they run a risk for adequate gain, and, if they are caught, they take the consequences. If they know what they are doing, those consequences may be very serious; if they do not, they may get off merely with some inconvemence or delay. This must suffice them. Having done their best to aid one belligerent by carrying contraband for him, they cannot ask that the other shall pay the penalty for theh own success in defeating the attempt by rewarding the neutral carrier as if this venture had succeeded. That would be to encourage the carrying of contraband, whereas it is a thing to be deterred. Nor should ignorance of what he is doing be a safeguard to the carrier. If he is to be deterred, it must be made worth his whUe to know, in order that he may pref er to abstain."
Voir aussi la décision d'appel Rannveig (1389).
Voir toutefois la décision aUemande concernant le Berkelstroom, n°. 1 (668) :
, die Neutralitatswidrigkeit, die in der Beförderung von Konterbande liegt. . . ."
$ 407. Les articles de contrebande de guerre, peu importe de queUe nationahté, peuvent être interceptés a bord de tout navire marchand, battant n'importe quel pavillon. Par conséquent, peuvent être saisis :
a) les articles de contrebande de guerre ennemis a bord de navires marchands neutres;
Règle 2 de la Déclaration de Paris de 1856 : „Le pavillon neutre couvre la marchandise ennemie, a 1'exception de la contrebande de guerre."
b) les articles de contrebande de guerre neutres a bord de navires marchands ennemis;
Règle 3 de la Déclaration de Paris de 1856 : „La marchandise neutre,