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§ 649.

1124

deren Ersatz sie von diesem wirdfordern müssen. Das Reich ist auf Grund Prisenrechts nicht verpflichtet, dem Eigentümer Auslagen zu erstatten, welche dieser aus irgend welchen schuldrechtiichen Gründen fur Dritte gemacht hat."

II s'agissait, dans 1'espèce, de marchandises neutres, perdues avec un navire neutre coulé pour cause de transport d'articles de contrebande de guerre, mais sans que ces articles formassent plus de la moitié de la cargaison [comp. § 508].

b) Avarie commune. — Frais de sauvetage.

_ 650. Aussi bien que le capteur est tenu d'acquitter, tout au moins aux armateurs neutres, le fret qui, sans capture, leur aurait été dü par les propriétabes du chargement, du chef du transport de celui-ci [voir a ce sujet ci-dessus, § 642 et ss.], la juridiction britannique a admis 1'obhgation du capteur de payer sa part dans 1'avarie commune subie par le navire avant la saisie. La Cour de Londres se trouva ici devant une contestation nouveüe non encore tranchée dans la jurisprudence anglaise.

Sörfareren (198) : „As to the thbd head the claim raises a question of principle which this Court has not heretofore been called upon to decide. It is whether captors of cargo take it with the burden of a proportionate contribution to general average loss incurred before the capture.... I have dealt in other cases — for example, The Marie Glaeser (4) [vob § 209] and The Odessa (32) [voir § 245] — with the general question af f ecting liens on ships and cargoes captured and with the authorities relating to them in this and in other countries. I refrain from again traversing the same ground. The main distinction is between liens imposed by the general law of the mercantile world independent of any contract, and those which arise from private engagements of contractual relations between parties — see The Tobago [1804], The Frances [1814], and The Carlos F. Roses [1899].

The nature of a claim for general average was described clearly by the Privy Councü in the case of Cleary v. Mc. Andrew; The Cargo ex Galant [1863], as follows : „There remains the question of the claim for general average. On principle this claim seems to stand on the same reason as freight. It is a loss incurred for the general benefit of the ship and cargo, to which those who have received the benefit are by law liable to contribute rateably. And for this claim the master who has incurred the expenses has a lien on the goods. It is a possessory lien at common law, by vbtue of which he is entitied to hold the goods tül his lien be satisfied." — And the Privy Council decided that the claim for freight and general average stood upon the same footing and had the first right against the funds in Court. •'.'»"'{

There is also a statement by Lord Stowell in a case of prize in regard

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