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its practical consequences


The stand of the Whig leaders had been supported by the threatening attidude of the people all over the county. The PoHtical Unions mentioned in Mr. Trevelyan's account had been formed in most towns. The model of Thomas Attwood's Birmingham Union founded in 1830 and presided over by middleclass leaders, but including all classes, prevailed in the Midlands and West. In the industrial North there were 'Low Political Unions' of working - men only.


Speech by the Rev. Sydney Smith

Stick to the Bill—it is your Magna Charta, and your RunnymedeKing John made a present to the Barons. King William has made a similar present to you. Never mind; common qualities good in common times. If a man does not vote for the Bill, he is unclean—the plague-spot is upon him— push him into the lazaretto of the last century, with Wetherell and Sadler2)—purify the air before you approach him—bathe your hands in Chloride of Lime if you have been contaminated by his touch.

So far from its being a merely theoretical improvement, I put it to any man, who is himself embarked in a profession, or has sons in the same situation, if the unfair influence of Borough-

1. Magna Charta, the charter granted by King John in 1215 to his Barons at Runnymede was long looked upon as the beginning of British 'liberties,' i.e. the beginning of the power of Parliament. Its importance, according to modern scholars, has been much exaggerated.

2. Sir Charles Wetherell and Mtchael Thomas Sadler were prominent Tories.

3. chloride [kloraid] of limeia. disinfectant.