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PREFACE

the upper, the less cultured from the more cultured, rather than vice versa, fust as children will learn their words from their paren ts and teachers; end if we consider that thousands of Flemings came to England in the Middle Ages to teach their handicrafts and trades to the English, that numbers of English students went to the University of Louvain, as still larger numbers did to that of Leyden in more modern times, there can be no question as to which were the borrowers and which the lenders.

My study of the Anglo-Dutch relations from the earliest times to the death of William the Third, has taught me that

(1) one wave of Flemish and Dutch immigration af ter another flowed over Great Britain and Ireland from the time of William the Conqueror to that of William the Third;

(2) thousands came to stay, lived with English hosts, taught their trades to English apprentices, and married English wives;

(3) the handicrafts and industries they introduced or improved were many, in addition to the principal one, which was weaving;

(4) on many occasions British and Low Dutch soldiers fought side by side, either in Great Britain and Ireland, or in the Low Countries and elsewhere;

(5) from the Middle Ages to the middle of the 16th century, there was an almost uninterrupted trade with the Hanseatic towns; the Hanse merchants enjoyed great privileges in England, where they had their Guildhall in more than one town;

(6) the carrying trade between Great Britain and the Continent was chiefly in the hands of the Dutch until Cromwell's Navigation Act; hence the continual contact between English and Low Dutch seamen, which led to the introduction into English of several Low Dutch nautical terms;

(7) there was continual contact between English and Low Dutch fishermen;

(8) from the 14th century there were English colonies of Merchant-Adventurers in various towns of Flanders, the Netherlands and North Germany, while at various times the English or the Scotch woolstaple was in Flemish or Dutch towns;

(9) during the latter part of the 16th, and to a much greater extent during the whole of the 17th century, the English endeavoured to outvie the Dutch, who were far ahead of them in every

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