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The expositor's Greek Testament

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fici^oka dfiapriav 12- *'Ek toiStou ' 4 "l^T0S p vl" 66 rett

k diroXuaai auróy. oi Sc 'louSaioi ?Kpa£oK1 Xéyorres, " 'Eav ToOrof q v. 16. diroXucrgs, oük et (j>iXos tou Kaurapos- iras 6 (SacriXea * aurèf b Is. xxil sa; iroiüy, ,diriX£y« tm Kaïcrapi." 13. 'O oui» riiXaTOS dKouaa? toutoc iv. 4. Lk. tov \6yov, tfyayec ê£o> tok 'irjcroGi', Kal eKdOicrei' èm tou pi^fiatos, tv. i w. els touw Xcyüp.ei'ot' AiGócTTpaiTOK, 1 'EjSpaïffTi Se Ta^f^aöa 14. t|v Rev. ix. Se irapao'keut) tou irdar^a, wpa Se <ü<rel Ikttj.2 Kat Xéyei Tots ig.'

1 «KpavyaCov is adopted by Tisch. after AIL ; «pavyao-av by W.H. after BD 33.

» Ti.W.H. read «pa rj» ut with ^AB. rpirr] is found ^CD»"PPLX and some cursives.

this and from this point, éic tovtov, as in vi. 66, " upon this," with a causal as well as a temporal reference, èï^Tti 6 rUXaTOS airoXvo-ai aüróv, Pilate sought (ineffectually, imperfect) to set Him free.

Vv. 126-16. Fresh assault upon Pilate and his final surrender.—Ver. 12. ot si 'Iousoloi, " but the Jews," a new turn was at this point given to the case by the cunning of the Sanhedrists, who cried out, expaïjov X^yovTts 'Eav . . . Kaïtrapu <)>(Xos tou Kaïaapos. Wetstein says: " Legati, praesides, praefecti, consiliarii, amici Caesaris dicebantur," but it is not in this titular sense the expression is here used. The meaning is: Thou dost not show thyself friendly to Caesar. The reason being that every one who makes himself a king, dvTiXeyei ri Kaïaapi, " speaks against Caesar ". Euthymius, Field, Thayer, etc., prefer " setteth himself against Caesar," " resisteth his authority ". And as Jesus made Himself a king, Pilate would aid and abet Him by pronouncing Him innocent. This was a threat Pilate could not despise. Tiberius was suspicious and jealous. ["Judicia majestatis . . . atrocissime exercuit." Suetonius, Tib., 58. Treason was the makeweight in all accusations. Tacitus, ^4««a/s,iii.38.]—Ver. 13. Pilate therefore, when he heard this, brought Jesus out, Kat cKaOLtrcv €irl ToC (3rjp.aTos. In the Gospel according to Peter, cKaSio-tv is understood transitively : Kal ^Ka0ia-av aiiTov fHL KaOc'Spav Kpicrcus Xtyovrts Aucaiüjs KpXvc, {!a<riX(ï toü 'lapaTjX. Similarly in Justin, I. Apol., i. 35. This rendering presents a strikingly dramatic scene, and admirably suits the " behold your king" of ver. 14. (See Expositor for 1893, P- 29® ff-, and Robinson and James' Gospel according to Peter, p. 18.) But it is extremely unlikely that Pilate should thus have degraded his seat of justice, and much more natural to suppose that £Ka0i<rev

is used intransitively, as in xii. 14, etc. (Joseph., Bell. Jud., ii. g, 3, 6 fliXÓTos Ka0io"as €irl p^fiaTos), and that Pilate's taking his seat is mentioned to indicate that his mind .vas now made up and that he was now to pronounce his final judgment. The pijpa was the suggestum or tribunal, the raised platform (Livy, xxxi. 29 ; Tac., Hist., iv. 25) or seat (Suet., Aug., 44) on which the magistrate sat to administer justice. See 2 Macc. xiii. 26.—eis tottov Xe-yóp-evov AiOótrrpuTov, " at a place called Lithostroton," i.e., lit. Stone pavement, or Tesselated pavement (of which see reproductions in Rich's Antiq.). Cf. 2 Chron. vii. 3, Joseph., Bell. Jud., vi. 1,1. Pliny (xxxvi. 15) defines Lithostrota as mosaics, " parvulis certe crustis," and says they were a luxury introduced in the time of Sulla and found in the provinces rather than in Rome (see Krebs in loc.). The space in front of the praetorium where the p-rjpa stood was thus paved and therefore currently known as " Lithostroton " : 'EPpaïa-Ti Sé TaPPada, "but in Hebrew," i.e., in the popular Aramaic, " Gabbatha," which is not a translation of Lithostroton, but a name given to the same place from its being raised, from

22 a ridge or elevation. The tribunal

was raised as a symbol of authority and in order that the judge might see and be seen (see Lücke).—Ver. 14. rjv Sè irapatrKtTjTj rov ira.<T\a, " now it was the preparation of the Passover ". irapaerKev^ was the usual appellation of Friday, the day of preparation for the weekly Sabbath. Here the addition tou irdo^a shows that it is used of the day preceding the Passover. This day was, as it happened, a Friday, but it is the relation to the feast, not to the ordinary Sabbath, that is here indicated. Cf. ver. 42. £pa Sè icrcl Iktij. " It was about the sixth hour," i.t., about 12 o'clock. But Mark