necessary to be either a doctor or an artist to have the eyes of both. But there are not only men who are colour-blind, but also men who are blind to form, who lack both qualities in a greater or lesser degree, and unfortunately there are a good many doctors and artists among them.
The artist, like the doctor, sharpens his eye by practice, and both are obliged, in order to convince themselves of the correctness of their sight, to use certain technical aids, which enable them to compare their visual impressions with absolute values.
We have now, first of all, only to do with the manner in which a man obtains a correct impression of the form of the female body, from the medical standpoint, and we have in connection with it. just as in the case of a patiënt, to begin by considering the figure generally, before we pass to a judgment of the several parts.
It is important, in the first place, to set the nude body in such a position that the full light may fall evenly 011 it; as, for instance, opposite the window. When the lighting is oblique, it is difficult to compare the right half of the body with the left. The spectator should place himself at some distance away, with his back to the window, exactly opposite the person to be judged.
The posture of the body must be upright, like that of a soldier, but the feet must touch one another in their whole length (Fig. 35).
In this position one may, first of all, make oneself familiar with the proportions, the relation of the several parts of the body to one another and to the whole, and, where necessary, assist the eye with tape and compass. Zander's measuring apparatus answers all strictly scientific requirements.
For purposes of quick observation, it is sufficiënt to take a few chief measurements, which have been determined by comparative measurements of well-made bodies.
A. Measurements of height:
1. The height of the body is 71/* to 73/i times as great as the height of the head; the ratio 1: 8 occurs verv rarel.y. The average bodily height of European women is, according to Quetelet. 158 cm.