book is intended to be for an artist. It is not intended to teach hini anything new, it is only intended to provide him with the scientific proof that his feeling is the right one; it is intended to be a sign-post for him in the domain of the beautiful, and to show him that his sense of beauty is subject to the same laws to which we all must bow. We fancy we are impelling, whilst all the time we are being impelled.
It follows from what we have said, that the work of an artist is to a great extent dependent on his model. We have already mentioned at the commencement, that the works of others afford but a bad substitute for it, because they, too, are affected by the model chosen, as well as by the fashion of the period. We may refer again to Dürer's golden words, to return to Nature, and again to Nature. "Art and Nature are one and the same thing," says Lessing.
Thus, for instance, Burne-Jones, in his enthusiasm for the PreRaphaelite ideal, forgot nature, and abandoned his sound, healthy painting in favour of consumptive pictures of the ideal. And, as Fritsch points out,' Stuck, too, in his " Vertreibung aus dem Paradies ", has provided Eva with a layer of fat and made her rickettv. Curiously enough, the same defects occur, though much less conspicuously, in the Birnbaum monograph (Knackfuss 42, Fig. 117, in the study of a model.) The artist has reproduced the defects of the model in an intensified degree.
But, still, one must take heed not to regard everything that occurs in Nature as sterling gold; one must either have a very well-trained artistic perception, or, in doubtful cases, call in the aid of science.
Every painter cannot paint what he pleases; he is often obliged to paint what he can get. This is not only true of portrait-painters, who are often obliged to paint the ugliest faces, for the simple reason that the male or female possessors of them are blessed with earthly goods, but it is also true of painters who are perfectly free in the choice of their subject.
I could mention hundreds of instances, especially among the large number of modern painters, from whose works a fully-occupied