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the defendant to prove by his future conduct his worthiness of the leniency shown him will bring about reformation.

The State does not demand vengeance for a violation of its laws, but has and does demand protection for its citizens against the violator of the law. To deter others, punishment is inflicted, not for vengeance.

If the law can be vindicated by showing leniency and the defendant made a sober and better citizen, a better husband and father, and he and his family saved the disgrace that would follow his imprisonment, then leniency should be shown, for it has been said:

,,A nation is composed not of property, nor of provinces, but of men:"

and

„The true function of government is the production and recognition of human worth."

Clear-headed and clean-hearted men are the strength of a nation.

We cannot eradicate crime; we can only reduce it to its minimum. The teachings of parents, churches, schools, and of many societies — religious, temperance, civic, and literary, — and the practice of physical culture, conducing to a sound mind and body; the circulation of good newspapers and literature and the honest and charitable enforcement of the laws, are some of the forces at work to that end.

In the police court of the City of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, U. S. A., -— an interior city of more than seven hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, — I began my career as a provisional police judge twenty-one years ago.

More than ten years ago I began, as a provisional judge, and, for the last eight years and a half as the regualr judge, of the court, to accept almost daily total abstinence honor pledges, signed voluntarily, in lieu of fine or imprisonment, — and made the plan part of the work and machinery of the court in those cases of offenders arraigned for drunkenness or petty offenses growing out of drunkenness. I pursued the foliowing plan:

The offender signed the following total abstinence pledge for a stated period — a year:

„As evidence of my appreciation of the opportunity given me by the Judge of the above-named Court, to

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